Sandra Bridewell


Sandra Camille (Powers) Bridewell, was born, April 4, 1944. She was adopted as a child by Arthur and Camille Powers of Sedalia, Missouri. She was known primarily as a destructive con-artist, as, over the course of more than 3 decades, the woman who became known as the “Black Widow”, deceived both lovers and friends for hundreds of thousands of dollars. She is also suspected of being a part of, atleast one of her husbands and also a close friend death.

It all started in a disconcerting and traumatic childhood. Reports indicate, that at the age of 3, her adoptive mother, Camille, was killed in a car-accident. Bridewell’s father, Arthur, who both managed and commanded a Dr.Pepper bottling factory, eventually re-married, and the family were re-located to Oak Cliff, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. He resigned from his previous position and found new employment, becoming a cemetery plot salesman.

Bridewell discovered that adjusting to her new surroundings was not the problem, the problem was adjusting to her new stepmother Doris. The two of them were continuosly fighting, whilst Bridewell would protest that her stepmother regulary locked her inside a closet, refused to send out birthday party invitations and enjoy telling her that nobody wanted her.

Bridewell graduated high school in the year of 1962. As a high school student, she would rarely date, however after graduation, she soon began dating a series of different men. She was extreamly seductive, many of the men became totally smitten with, what a later friend would describe as, “her, ‘lady-like’, ‘poor-helpless-me’ routine”. Bridewell attended junior college for a single year, it seems Bridewell had already decided her intentions, she wanted to marry into money.


For Sandra to achieve her intentions, she began living a life, littered with deception and deceit. She would tell some friends, that both of her adoptive parents were killed. She would tell some others she was daughter to Irish aristocrats. The most common deceit that she used with regularity, was the “West Point Boyfriend”, this entailed the story of a boyfriend who shot himself while she sat next to him in a car.

Despite Sandra’s continuous deceptive nature, she was able to convince many people to believe her lies, especially men. Many stories from these men, were very similar and followed a general theme, recalling, “She had a way” and, “Men, just sort of… were fascinated with her”. Sandra through the course of her life, would intensify the deception and lived with many different aliases.

There were many victims, from her guiltless deceit. One such victim, was the up-shot dentist, David Stegall, who was schooled in Los Angeles and was a regular dentist for high-status Hollywood stars. Stegall had a compulsion towards, Cadillacs, large homes and pretty women. Sandra noticed something she liked about Stegall, and by the year 1967 she had married him. Within the first few years after the marriage, the couple began to raise a family, and soon had 3 daughters, Britt, Kathryn and Emily. The family enjoyed a high-class lifestyle and lived in a most desirable Dallas neighbourhood.

Sandra’s taste and passion for the finer things were even more profound than her husbands, and desite the massive salary and reputation of Stegall, Sandra’s tastes were beginning to strain and taking the family to the brink. Sandra was a connoisseur of many things, she loved beautiful artwork and expensive furnishings. By the year 1974, the couple’s marriage was in turmoil and the family was in severe debt, forcing Stegall to loan a substantial sum of money from his father to pay off a number of the hefty bills.

By February 1975, the situation had over-come Stegall, and he tried to commit suicide. Reports indicate that Sandra discovered a distressed Stegall closed in a closet with a gun pointed at his head. Sandra was then able to persuade Stegall to re-consider. However this did not change Stegall for the long-term, and a few weeks later he was discovered dead. Lying on in his bed with both wrists open and a.22 caliber gunshot wound through his head.

Sandra swiftly took action towards straightening her financial situation. This started with the collection of her husband’s life insurance policy, sold the lat Stegall’s practice and began dating other wealthy men. After a mere 3 years of her husband’s death, Sandra was married again, this time to well-known Dallas based developer, Bobby Bridewell.

Soon after the wedding Bridewell took the decision to adopt Sandra’s 3 daughters and the family made their’ home in the fancy Dallas neighbourhood of Highland Park. However in 1980, life changed and in dramatic and tragic twist Bridwell was diagnosed with cancer. Sandra found the diagnosis extremely painful, as she continued her life in her usual way, with an elemental grieving. During her husbands battle with the illness, Sandra decided to have the family’s entire household remodelled, forcing the weakening Bridewell to move into a friend’s house. Bridewell after a 2 year struggle, finally succumbed to his diagnoses and died.

The impact of Bridewell’s death was hard-felt by Sandra. At least for the short-term, she was able to gain support and hope, in the friendship of Bridewell’s oncologist, Dr’ John Bradwell and his wife Betsy. In the beginning the couple were more than happy and open to offer support to their friend. Sandra over-time, began visiting the Bagwell household with more frequent persistence. Whilst the doctor and his wife were enjoying a vacation in New Mexico, Sandra went as far as to show up unannounced. Her ever increasing requests were frequented with pleads of childcare and harassment through phone calls.

The Bagwell’s soon decided upon action, and attempted to extricate themselves from the relationship with Sandra. Sandra however would not allow it. In June 1982, she made a phone call to Betsy, and requested she take her to the hospital, so she could rent a car as her’s wouldn’t start. Betsy supplicated and would take Sandra to the hospital, and then back to the Church were Sandra was previously parked so she could retrieve her license, which she claimed on arrival, had been forgotten.

The exact details of the encounter remain shrouded in mystery. What is understood, is that on June 16, 1982, authorities discovered the 40-year old Mrs. Bagwell, dead in her Mercedes i the airport parking lot. There was a large gunshot wound in her head, and a stolen.22 caliber pistol held in her right hand. when the verdict was given, it was concluded as a suicide.

Despite the verdict, there was still many questions unanswered. The police were aware that Sandra was the last person to have seen Betsy alive. Questions emerged about the death, these included the absence of a suicide note. The police however refused to re-examine the case and it remained closed.

As was so accustomed to Sandra, she non-chalantly continued with her life. As of June 1984, another man had fallen into her clutches. The victim, a good-looking 29 year-old, Alan Rehrig, had just moved to Dallas to begin work for a mortgage company. Sandra was conversing around her yard, when Rehrig, searching for a place he could call home, happened to pass by in his car. Pulling his Ford Bronco over to the side of the road, he asked Sandra if she knew of any apartments to move into. She admitted she did not, instead, agreeing to help him out.

Within just a few short weeks the pair became inseparable. Rehrig was extremely fond of Sandra’s 3 daughters, who, at their’ mother’s calling would announce themselves upon an unsuspecting Rehrig, whilst he was busy working at his office. Sandra, by the fall of 1984, had some unexpected news for Rehrig and delivered the news that she was pregnant with twins. This situation was even more curious for one important reason, 7 years previous Sandra underwent a successful hysterectomy. This was yet more deceit from Sandra, feeling that as she gained some weight around her stomach, that she could lie effectively. There were of course more lies, lies including her age, telling Rehrig she was 36, when she was in fact 41.

A trustworthy Rehrig, had no reason to doubt his new girlfriend, as he still felt the were getting to know each other. Despite the intervention of friend’s to demonstrate to Rehrig the speed at which his life was changing, he was also in love, and, December 1984, Sandra Bridewell and Alan Rehrig became husband and wife.

There was always the awareness to Sandra, that the pregnancy lie could only take her so far. With, Rehrig committed entirely to his wife, Sandra was able to easily change the story. So, in February 1985, she made a phone call to her husband and told him the unfortunate news that she had a miscarriage.

The news was devastating to Rehrig and the marriage began to suffer as a result. Like her previous two husbands, Rehrig was beginning to realise that his wife a pallet for expensive tastes. She would push him to make more and more money, and made him take out a big life insurance policy. Friend’s recall how Rehrig complained of Sandra’s habits, as she spent $20,000 a month on clothes, food and travel.

November 1985, and the couple separated. Rehrig was convinced he had to end the relationship with Sandra and moved into a friend’s home. The two of them, were separated for a period of several weeks and they didn’t so much as set eyes upon each other. Then in early December, Sandra phoned Rehrig and arranged a meeting at a storage facility at which the two had stored some items.

The true happenings of what ensued over the next several hours have never been determined. What is understood is, Rehrig was located slumped over in his Bronco in Oklahoma. The were vast gunshot wounds to both the head and the chest. It was also determined that Rehrig has in fact been driven all the way to Oklahoma. The death of Rehrig was heavily scrutinised, Sandra was suspected of his murder, however nothing could be pinned on the woman who had become known around Dallas as the, “Black Widow”. Her demeanor under interrogation could be described as coy, almost playful. There was then a total switch in behaviour from the “Black Widow”, and she became completely uncooperative, refusing anyone to talk to both her and her daughters.

If there was any grief towards her husbands death, then it was being hidden well. Sandra, was scrimping on funeral expenses, selecting the most in-expensive casket possible for Rehrig and then convincing her friends to cover the burial costs. On the day of the service, she arrived late, dressed head to foot in a rich mink coat. This was an affordable expense, Rehrig’s death had provided her with a $220,000 life insurance claim, dropped straight into her bank account.

Sandra’s reputation however was in tatters. A popular local magazine, detailing Sandra’s curious past, and recounting her behaviour was to serve to this. Sandra was soon to leave Dallas for good, she re-located herself and her family to the San Francisco area. Sandra still contained the same charm and engaged it upon Marin County, she soon began dating a gaggle of wealthy men, who were sympathetic towards her past story, this story would often incorporate the use of a trust fund that she was about to be receiving and her non-restrained sexual inhibition. One of the men loaned her $23,000., whilst another was suckered into parting with $70,000, which he pulled up through a pension. Neither of the men received a single penny of their loans back, even though they took their’ claims to court. Soon, the same and similar stories that had surrounded Sandra in Dallas, began to appear in San Francisco.

By the early 1990′s, Sandra changed her name and was now known as Camille Bridewell. She had left California, and moved to Boston, where she took up residence with a boyfriend. She was also a resident in Connecticut and Hawaii. Despite the change of addresses, the same meanness still stewed in her underbelly. She would now steal the Social Security numbers of other people, she would take out credit cards, and rack up huge purchases, without an intent to ever pay the money back. she was so malicious in her actions, that she even destroyed the credit of her daughters.

As the millennium came around, Sandra was now middle aged, and shifted from sexuality to religion, as to draw her victims closer. The basis of her stories would now involve the invention of stories such as, she was a missionary who had traveled the world and work with orphans. As usual she was very persuasive and had a way to make people submit to her wants. She then befriended a couple who owned and managed a motel in the state of Alabama. Despite the fact that she was unable to even pay for a room, she was receiving food and money from the cople.

she continued with the missionary story, and as she moved herself to Atlanta, she would change her name slightly, from Bridewell to Bridwell. She then convinced a woman she met at church to split with the cost of an expensive condo rental. After a little time passed, Bridwell’s new housemate, found she was paying for everything, as Sandra claimed she was waiting for a large sum of money to be delivered form her trust fund.

As 2006 ensued, Sandra surfaced in North Carolina, at a new church and changed her name to Camille Bowers. Later that year, in September, she moved herself in with Sue Moseley, a 77 year old woman, residing in a million dollar home on the Carloina coast. Sandra struck up a deal with the son, Jim, that in return for the management of the housekeeping, she would receive free room and board.

She began to build a respectable reputation around the local community, and spoke several times at a local women’s club. Sandra then began the process of acquiring the finances of the Moseley’s. She gathered tax records, collected her Social Security payments into a separate account, siphoned off mortgage money, created credit charges and used Mosele’s bank account to fund her personal expenses, including spa treatments and expensive shoes.

Jim soon became suspicious of the new housekeeper, and early in 2007, he stumbled upon a length newspaper story in a Dallas publication, chronicling the exploits of her life. Jim, working alongside the police, as a front man in a sting, aided the arrest of the “Black Widow”, on 2nd March 2007 in a cafe in Charlotte, North Carolina.


The story of Sandra Bridewell culminates with numerous charges under her name. She was committed of, identity fraud, fraud, mail theft and Social Security fraud. After the arrest and the heavy publicity, the police took a renewed interest in the death of Rehrig and the police of Oklahoma City, pour more resources and more manpower towards the case.

February 2008, and Sandra Camille Powers, pleads guilty to one count of identity theft, later the same month she was formally sentenced by the judge. The “Black Widow”, had left a lasting impact and trail of destruction wherever she went, leaving a trail of victims desperate for her sentencing. When justice was finally insued, she was ordered to pay a $250,000 fine,a dn pay more than $1,600 dollars in restitution to the Moseley family.

Some Tips For Parrot Breeders

On the planet today parrots are facing extinction. Man is the problem because we have destroyed a great deal of the habitat, we have destroyed food supplies, and we have taken too many birds in order to supply the pet trade. The only way you can get a pet parrot legally is by going to one of the parrot breeders, this is because the importing wild birds is a illegal in the US and Europe. However, most of the breeders will supply the pets trade.

For many reasons, parrots can actually be lousy pets for some people.This is probably to do with they either die early, or live much longer than a human being. It seems Winston Churchill owned a parrot which he called Charly, it lived to over a hundred, and cursed like a soldier. These birds are extreamly intelligent and smart, but because they get bored easily they get into lots of trouble.

This brings a lot of parrot breeders to a seriously important issue indeed. Which is, some people should not be allowed to keep parrots as pets. It’s a shame, but many parrots are unfortunately abandoned sooner or later. So you’ve decided to become a parrot breeder, then you have to make sure you find a responsible owner for the baby parrots. This means guaranteeing to take the baby back in the future.

Some parrot species, live the hyacinth macaw are very close to becoming extinct both in captivity and in the jungle and one there for him to, and there still aren’t enough homes for the captive birds. It is true to say that some individuals only became parrot breeders after they rescue birds, and suddenly they have eggs.

It is becoming very apparent that parrots that are already captive need good care now. The question is, what about their young? Some South American parrot breeders are attempting to breed birds that should hopefully be able to look out for themselves. They then going to return them into the wild habitat that parrots love.

Some parrot breeders are attempting to end sales to pet shops, so the breeders will then pick the owners for the birds. It is also hoped that by giving better education to potential parrot owners they would know more about parrot care.

Cure Insomnia – Herbal Remedies

Insomnia is one of the more miserable of complaints suffered on a regular basis by mankind. Many sufferers of Insomnia and other sleep disorders lay there night after night staring into the dark becoming more and more despondant.

What to do? One of the first stops for the sufferer looking to cure Insomnia is the doctors surgery. This is a good idea as a physical checkup will reveal wether or not there is a phisical reason for the Insomnia or sleep disorder. The drawback is that if the doctor finds no real reason for the Insomnia he is likely to recommend a period of pill taking.

The drawbacks here are well documented. Addiction, morning headaches, daytime fatigue, personality changes, memory impairment, impaired concentration, poor judgment, mood disturbances, and in extream cases irregular heartbeat, and high blood pressure. The list goes on and on. A safer option for an insomnia cure may well lie in the direction of a herbal remedy. Used to cure insomnia and many other ailments for thousands of years these natural remedies are becoming more and more popular with main stream health care professionals.

They are not a quick fix. They will not put you to sleep in minutes or keep you in an artificial coma for hours. Herbal remedies are, in the main, more gentle and as a cure for insomnia offer an ideal alternative to main stream medicine. It is certainly a very large and complex subject, for more detailed advice than we go into here sign up for our article list at the address shown below.

A herbal insomnia cure may well include one or a blend of the following;

PASSION FLOWER eases anxiety-induced insomnia. Calming and can ease muscle spasms that can be very painful and keep you awake.

PEPPERMINT Used as a tea it may ease digestion

RED CLOVER Used for years as a tonic. Very relaxing

REISHI MUSHROOM Eases anxiety and calms the nervous system. A help for those with insomnia.

ST. JOHN’S WORT Good for mild depression and anxiety. It improves the quality of sleep

SIBERIAN GINSENG Gives you a lift. Good for the treatment of depression, lethargy and chronic fatigue syndrome

SPEARMINT A few drops on your pillow can be very soothing

THYME Try it as a tea or put a bit into your pillow

VALERIAN Valerian tea is a natural sedative

WOOD BETONY Use it as a substitute for tea

CATNIP Often used in insomnia formulas and as a sleep promoting tea

FLEECE FLOWER ROOT Treatment for deficient blood syndrome

GOTU KOLA Has a calming effect and also improves the circulation

HOELEN Noted for it’s calming, soothing effect

HOPS Relaxing and calming. It also digestion

JASMINE Used as a tea, it’s a mild nerve sedative

JUJUBE (DA T’SAO) Relieves nervous tension and apprehension

KAVA KAVA Very relaxing

LAVENDER Use it in your nightly bath

LEMON BALM Relieves nervous tension


OAT FIBER Soothing to the digestion and to the nervous system

PASSION FLOWER Eases anxiety-induced insomnia

SAGE Eases depression and is good for the nerves

A longer list, doses preparation and further details are shown in our leading EBook available at

Whilst this list is incomplete and almost all lists will be its noticiable that a large number of the “Cure Insomnia” remedies point to relaxation and digestion. These will be the subject of our next articles “Cure Insomnia – Relaxation” and “Cure Insomnia – digestion”.

As with all things medical please consult a QUALIFIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL before any attempts at medication wether self medication or otherwise.

Philip Jubb

The Best Network Marketing Company – The Unspoken Secret of MLM

So, you joined “The Best Network Marketing Company” on the planet and have not been successful. You love the products and tried really hard to build your business selling them. That was my story too! I set myself up as a product expert, but not anymore, now things are turning around.

You see, I trust my company to provide me with excellent products that I can use and confidently recommend. But I’ve noticed that the people who build the biggest businesses in all the companies I’ve been with are not product experts and seldom have more than 10 maybe 20 customers.

The product experts always fail to make that stable long term recurring income.

Why is that? Well, because there’s always another latest greatest product to be had from another company or infomercial or whatever and off your customers go looking for “The Holy Grail” product.

The only loyal customer is one building the business. Why would a business builder use Brand X when their own company pays them an incentive to use their own products?

That’s the brilliance of Network Marketing but because we’ve become so acclimated to business as usual, you know, one person selling a lot of product to make money, it’s difficult to see that many people each using and selling a small amount of product is actually a much better business model.

The other thing is, selling products is extreamly “time intensive” and justifying a product’s cost to one time buyers is exhausting and emotionally draining.

But most of us get caught up in that dance.

We believe in the product and by god we’re going to make everyone else see what we see in it come hell or high water. This has been my biggest challenge in every company I’ve been in. I become enamored with a product, think it’s going to save the world, and get crushed when no one sees what I do.


But the evidence that it does work is all around us. People are making boatloads of money, not because they sell the product but because they sell the lifestyle that can be had as a successful Network Marketer.

Interestingly, by selling the possibility of a lifestyle most people only dream of, they wind up directly and indirectly helping more people to use the great products. Go figure!

And about as obvious as a wort on the tip your nose (that no one talks about), is the fact that the upline markets to the downline. This, in my opinion, is one cause of distrust and suspicion in Network Marketing. You know…that it is not talked about. It is not a bad business model it’s just that few are up front about it. It is the eight hundred pound guerrilla in the room.

It’s an obvious secret but no one stays away from the supermarket because the grocer puts his biggest sellers at eye level. We are big boys and girls, we can take the truth. Right?

Then, the unasked question is; Is my upline trying to help me or is he trying to make money from me? The answer is yes, to both! In the best Network Marketing Companies we market to our “Network” openly.

At least that’s the way it is on our team. How can I be sure? Because the master distributor (my upline) sends marketing messages out to his entire downline, not to just me. The results of those messages benefit everyone from the newbie who joined under me today to the first person to join the master distributor three years ago.

Another way of saying this is; All marketing by my upline to me and my downline, benefits everyone in my organization.

A good analogy is; A speaker at the front of a room must be loud enough that a person at the back of the room can hear what he’s saying. Everyone between the speaker and the person in the last row benefits as a result.

I think everyone has seen the illustration of the single radio wave bouncing off the satellite reaching everyone who is tuned in. Same thing here.

When things go unsaid, when there isn’t full disclosure, distrust is always the result.

Crystals For Moon in Virgo

August 23 – September 22

Moon Crystal: Okenite
Intuition Crystal: Kyanite

Your moon crystal is a very special crystal, as most stones and crystals are to be worn or held to receive their vibrations; Okenite is not to be touched or carried, it is best to be placed on your bedside table and let it do its work while you sleep. Okenite connects you with higher energies and helps you learn your souls lessons.

Moon in Virgo are kindhearted and caring, with integrity, great common sense, a sound memory and very intuitive. You love to be of service and are great with organization. Creative energy is your long suite and you are able to express yourself through your creative energy either with art or crafty things. Wear or carry Blue Topaz as it will balance out your tendency for extreame service, it will keep you from being at the complete disposal of others but still be of service. This crystal also helps you carry out your aspirations without giving up your need to be of service.

You are a perfectionist to the max and set very high standards for yourself and others, which can create disappointments that you and others cannot attain them, if you wear or carry Amethyst this will help you make realistic goals.

Peridot will assist you in being kinder to yourself and helps to relieve another one of your characteristics of trying to figure out everything right down to the core. You can tend to be a workaholic, for this you can use Azurite to release stress and to balance out the mind and emotions on the body.

You can tend to be fearful of criticism and Citrine can assist you in being less sensitive and helps you to be open to constructive criticism. Kyanite is great for encouraging your intuition as it clears out any illusions, you need to know that your intuition is pure and this brings that clarity. Use Chrysoberyl to attract your creative energy and attract your creativity to you, you will find that the creative vibes will just flow to and through you when you carry this crystal.

Extenze Review – My Shocking Experience With Extenze Male Ehnancement Pills

Unless you have just arrived from out of space, I’m pretty sure that most men are aware of Extenze male enhancement pills.  After all it’s hard to not turn on the television and not see the Extenze ad with the awesome race cars and extreamly  hot babes!

I decided to do a quick Extenze review based on my personal experience with the product.  I am not ashamed to admit that I suffer with erectile dysfunction, and as a result it was a problem for me to keep it up for a longer period of time.  

I was always a bit skeptical of using male enhancement pills, as I always thought it would cause my penis to shrink even further or drop off later on in life.  I searched the length and breath of the internet, hoping to find some Extenze reviews that would answer the ultimate question that most men have; Does Extenze Work?  Well I finally decided to give into my fear and ordered the Free 7 day trial pack of Extenze, I only had to pay like $1 for shipping, so I thought why the heck now.  I’ve spent a buck on a lot worse before in my life.

I must admit that when I popped the first pill from my free sample pack, it did have my stomach feeling a bit queasy, but that soon settled after an hour or so.  Now my girlfriend had no idea that I was on the Extenze male enhancement pill.  So later than night after a bit of bribing and begging, she agreed to get in the sack.  

But even way before that happened, I was feeling the intense rush of blood flowing to my penis but just the mare thought of having sexual intercourse. 

During sex I noticed I went past my mark for the longest time I was ever able to stay up, and I was not even feeling the slightest bit tired.  These effects were also noticed by my girlfriend as well, who had to question me what I did to myself to get those results.

Without a doubt the Extenze male enhancement pills delivered on most of what is advertised on television, at least in my own personal experience.

Should you try it?  Well that is totally up to you and your situations.  If you are curious like I was, you can always opt to get the free sample pack, so that you can try and see how best it works for you.

I hope my personal Extenze review was of some benefit to men who are interested in finding a fairly quick solution to boost their sex lives.

Wedding Planners

Wedding Planners are pretty common in the planning and preparation of a wedding. However, not everyone knows what they do. Wedding planners help in all aspects of planning your wedding. Many brides feel extreamly close and grateful to their planners by the end of the reception for all that they have done.

Planners are usually hired right after the couple become engaged or soon thereafter. Many of them plan the whole event, leaving the bride to deal with other matters, such as enjoying being engaged or avoiding being stressed for months on end in order to have the perfect wedding.

A good planner will handle all the details for you, finding all your vendors and get the best contracts that they can. An expierenced wedding planner will know the best vendors to hire, the best places to have a wedding ceremony or reception as well as the places that you should avoid. Even though hiring a wedding planner is an added expense they do add a lot of options to planning your wedding.

Why Would You Hire a Wedding Planner?

The number one reason to hire a wedding planner is probably the amount of time you can save. It would take you hundreds of hours to properly research and follow up on references for each and every type of vendor you want or need to hire. With a hired professional you can relax more than most upcoming brides as you are paying someone else to do all the research and handle all the vendors. Another reason to consider hiring a wedding planner is that they can get you better rates with wedding vendors. Sometimes wedding vendors, such as reception halls or bakers, may charge a wedding planner less than the general public because they want to create repeat business.

One of the nice things about having a wedding planner is that you have someone to worry about all the details. You also have a professional, unbiased opinion at your disposal. Finally, if you are planning to have a destination wedding, a wedding planner is almost a must as it is far more difficult to plan an out of town wedding than it does when you can go to every site and meet every wedding vendor in person.

Why You Would Avoid a Wedding Planner?

The number one reason to avoid hiring one is the price of having one. Fees vary of course, some planners charge flat fees which are usually in the $2-5,000 range while many charge a percentage of the cost of the wedding, usually 10-15%. Another reason you may not want to utilize this service is because you do not want to allow someone else plan your wedding, it is after all a day you have been dreaming about for your entire life and it should be perfect. You may have a wedding planner which does not see your vision or share your ideas on what your wedding should be like. A lot of brides want to be in complete control of their wedding, and using someone to help plan it makes them feel as if someone else is calling all the shots.

How to Calculate Window Tint Visible Light Transmission (VLT)

Window tinting films are measured in visible light transmission levels (or VLT). This means that when we discuss a particular film, be it for fitting to a car or any other application, we normally refer to it with it’s VLT value. VLT is measured in percentage ( % ), so if you hear about a tint product being referred to as a percentage, it is the VLT that defines that percentage value.

For example, a tinting film referred to as Charcoal 5% is a charcoal coloured tint with a VLT of 5% and likewise a film referred to as green 50% is a green coloured tint film with a VLT of 50%. But what does the number actually mean?

Well, in simple terms the VLT value is the percentage of visible light that will be allowed to travel through the window tinting film from the exterior face side of the film to the interior side. This means that a 5% film will only allow 5% light travel through and a 70% film will allow 70% light to travel. In effect, this means that lower VLT films will appear darker. For instance, it is normally 5% tints that we will see on limousines for privacy.

So, fitting a 5% tint to a window will allow 5% light to travel through the glass from outside to inside, right? NO! Because we need to take into consideration the actual VLT of the window before the tint is even installed. There is no such thing as a piece of glass, no matter how clear it appears, with a VLT of 100%. This is because glass naturally filters out a little bit of visible light.

Lets look at car window tinting as this is one area where we speak of VLT often due to the fact that many countries have laws in place limiting how dark car windows should be tinted. Most modern cars come from factory with windows reading a VLT somewhere between 72% and 78%, depending on manufacturer, model and country. Say, our example car’s windows read at 72% and we add a 50% window tinting film, what is the new and final VLT of our car’s windows after installation?

The sum is very simple: V1 x V2 = V3 (Where V1 is the original VLT of the glass before tinting, V2 is the VLT of the window tinting film and V3 is the final VLT value of the glass with tint film applied).

Our car’s windows original VLT = 72% and the tint = 50 %, thus V1 = 72 and V2 = 50

The sum is 72 x 0.50 giving us 36, which we will express as a percentage. So a window with an original VLT of 72% will then have a VLT of 36% after application of a 50% film.

Homework Organization For Students (And Their Parents)

I spend a lot of time at my seminars and workshops, on the phone and via email discussing the subject of homework organization. Actually, I spend a lot of time listening to parents complain that their children’s homework disorganization is driving everybody crazy!

Many students have such a hard time getting it together that by the time they finally sit down to do their homework, they are exhausted. No wonder they don’t want to do it! Getting organized will help alleviate exhaustion, bad attitudes, procrastination and rebelliousness.

Homework organization just makes life easier for everyone.

These are the homework organization tips that I use as a student, teacher and parent. Print this list and read it with your children. Then, post it on the fridge and refer to it often so that everybody (parents, kids, babysitters, grandparents) will be on the same organized page.

At School:

  • Write down every, single homework assignment in one place. I strongly recommend using a bound or wire notebook- definitely NOT a loose leaf binder. I don’t care how careful you are, pages will fall out, and then what? You won’t know what to do nor when to do it! A plain notebook is fine, but a datebook or calendar is the best. Some schools even provide these to students. Use it.
  • Write down homework assignments as you get them. This is mostly for older students that change classes and teachers, but it is a good habit for everyone. If the teacher says, “Oh, tonight I want you to read Chapter 4,” write that down in your notebook.
  • Write down every, single due date for a project or paper- even if you have a handout or syllabus. Handouts disappear (I think they hang out with loose socks), but you will still know what to do and when to do it if you have everything written down in your homework notebook.
  • Keep ALL of the day’s homework assignments together in one place. Don’t have a special place or page for math, another for writing, etc. You want to see everything in one spot.
  • Check your homework notebook Three (3) Times A Day: Before you leave school (or each class), double check to make certain that you have everything (books, paper, materials, etc.) that you will need later.

At Home:

  • Before you start doing your homework, look at your notebook and make sure that you are doing the right assignment, the right page, etc.
  • Before you put everything away, take one more quick look. Did you do everything? Good!
  • Make a decision about where you will put your completed homework: into a binder pocket, a special homework folder, etc. You may decide to have a color-coded folder for each class. If you choose to use folders, I strongly recommend using 3-hole punched folders and keeping them together in a 3-ring binder. Whatever you choose, stick to it! Don’t put your homework in your a binder today, a folder tomorrow… And, never, ever fold your homework into a book or throw it loose into your backpack! Shudder!
  • Use your Magic Homework Box. You do have one, don’t you? The Magic Homework Box is a box with all of the homework supplies and materials a student needs on a regular basis. These supplies only come out of the Magic Homework Box during homework time, so you always have what you need. Now, that’s magic!
  • Clean up as soon as you are finished with your homework. Now, not later! Put completed pages in your homework folder, then put the folder and homework notebook in your backpack. Not only will mornings will be less crazy, you won’t have to sit in class knowing that you did your homework and forgot it at home (doh!). Don’t forget to put away the dictionary and any other books you may have used.
  • Remember to put everything back into your Magic Homework Box. In my house, homework is not “done” until everything is cleaned up and put away.
  • Keep your backpack organized. Throw away all of those candy wrappers and random pieces of paper. Keep one area or pocket filled with a few items (pencils, a sharpener, maybe a calculator) so that you can do your homework anywhere- maybe even before you get home! Remove any graded test, project, report or paper that your teacher has taken the time to return to you. Why? You might need it to study for a test, for a portfolio or for a project. You can throw everything away at the end of the semester or the school year, but until then put each item in its own subject file, but NOT in the homework folder. Remember, homework folders are ONLY for completed homework that is ready to be turned in!
  • Don’t give up! They say it takes 21 days to form a good habit. If you forget to do something on this list, don’t stop trying. Hey, maybe if you remember to write down all of your homework or clean up for 21 days in a row, your mom or dad will do something extra nice for you! (Parents, that was a hint!)

A Note to Parents about Homework Organization

Please remember that your job is to give your children organizational tools and show them how to use them. Your job is NOT to organize your child’s homework! So, in the beginning, you might check your son’s homework notebook to make sure that he is writing down all of his assignments in one place, but you would never dream of calling the teacher and checking. You might watch as your daughter copies the science project due dates into her homework notebook; you will not do it for her.

Yes, I know that it is hard to let go- I’ve been there! But, we want our children to be organized and independent learners, right?

You can do it!

(For more information about recommended homework organization products and The Magic Homework Box, please see site information below.)

What is Bluetooth?

Bluetooth technology specifies a two-way, short-range radio link that enables communication between PCs, mobile phones, PDAs, and other computing, electronic, and home theatre equipment. With Bluetooth, you can easily synchronize contact or calendar data between a PDA and laptop, talk on a hands-free phone, or print without cables. It is a cable replacement technology like infrared, but offers many advantages over infrared.

The Bluetooth specification focuses on keeping costs low, power consumption minimal, and the size small. Its low power consumption means it can be used in battery-powered devices. Bluetooth offers faster data rates and greater   transmission  distances compared with infrared and there are no line-of-site restrictions. It operates at the 2.4 GHz radio frequency, ensuring worldwide operability.


Bluetooth is named after a 10th century Danish king, Harald Blatand (Harld Bluetooth) who was known for uniting warring groups in current-day Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. It was originally developed by Ericsson, but is now managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG).

The Bluetooth SIG is an industry group with members from the telecommunications, computing, and chip manufacturing industries. To date over 2000 companies are members. The Bluetooth SIG oversees a qualification program to ensure compliance with the standard and interoperability with other Bluetooth devices. Any device bearing the Bluetooth logo has successfully completed interoperability testing.

Technical Details

Speed: The gross data rate supported by Bluetooth is 1 Mbps. Actual data rates are 432 kbps for full-duplex and 721 kbps for asymmetric  transmission .

Frequency: Bluetooth uses the unlicensed ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) band at 2.4 GHz. In most countries, this band is available. In a few countries it is reserved for military use, but even these countries are moving to make the band available for general use. Because Bluetooth shares the same frequency range as 802.11b WLAN products, these two technologies cannot operate in the same space under some conditions.

Security: Bluetooth is designed to be as secure as wire using authentication and 128-bit encryption. Applications can also build their own security on top of the Bluetooth connection.

 Transmission  distance: Bluetooth’s typical range is up to 10m. The range depends on the radio power class used. A class 2 radio has a typical range of 10m. More powerful classes support longer ranges and have higher output powers. Most devices use a class 2 radio and mobile devices, like mobile phones, where low power consumption is crucial, can only use a class 2 radio.

Architecture: With Bluetooth, up to 8 devices can be connected simultaneously. A piconet is the term for a collection of Bluetooth devices connected in an ad hoc fashion. All devices are peer units, but one device acts as a master and the other slaves for the duration of the piconet connection. Each piconet can support up to 3 full-duplex voice devices. Within a 10m area, there can be up to 10 piconets.


Bluetooth is becoming the preferred wireless technology in the WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network). Personal applications include:

– Users can connect PCs to transfer files.

– Workers can collaborate on the same document using Microsoft NetMeeting.

– Users can connect to a printer without cables.

– Users can synchronize data between a handheld PDA and laptop.

– Users can listen to music via a wireless headset.

– Users can talk on their mobile phone with a wireless headset.

– Users can connect their laptops to the internet using their mobile phone’s GPRS or UMTS network.